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Miss Chen

突然想到在网上建一个空间,方便新老朋友交流英语学习的经验,就有了这个博客。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

【引用】八年级(上)英语复习期末复习要点  

2011-12-21 10:42:55|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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八年级()英语复习期末复习要点

A.短语:

1(1). 一周一次 once a week          (2). 一周两次  twice a week

(3). 一周三次 three times a week

2(1). ….有好处  be good for sb      ….有害  be bad for

       Reading English news is good for studying.    

(2). 对某人好 be good to = be friendly to = be kind to

(3). 擅长 be good at / do well in + n / prep / doing

3.设法做….(1). try one’s best to do    (2). do one’s best to do

   努力做某事  try to do sth     尝试做某事try doing sth

4.保持健康 . keep healthy = be in good health = kip fit         

5(1). 寻找 look for                   (2). (字典) look up   

(3). 照顾 look after / take care of     (4). 检查 look over

(4)  调查look into                 (5) 浏览look through

6.和……不同  be different from       …..一样  the same as ….

7(1). 发烧 have a fever    (2). 感冒 have a cold  

(3). 头痛 have a headache

(4). 胃痛 have a stomachache       (5). 牙齿痛 have a toothache

8(1). 背痛 have a sore back          (2). 咽喉痛 have a sore throat

(3). 腿痛 have a sore leg

9.什么事?怎么哪?

   (1). What’s up ?      

(2). What’s wrong with sb ?   what’s the matter with sb ?

(3). What happened to sb ?

10.某人/物有问题   There is something wrong with sb .

     There is nothing wrong with my body. 我身体没有毛病

11.此刻,现在  (1). now    (2). right now    (3). at the moment

12.去做….go + ing

   (1). go shopping    (2). go bike riding     (3). go sightseeing

     (4).go fishing      (5). go swimming      (6) go camping

     (7) go skateboarding (8) go boating         (9) go hiking

13.动身去…..leave ….. for……         

14.到达…..(1). reach + 地点   (2). get to + 地点   (3). arrive in + 地点

15(1). 坐地铁去…..take the subway to ….  go to ….by subway

(2). 骑车去…..ride the bike to ……     go to …..by bike

(3). 走路去….walk to …..             go to ….on foot

16(1). 坐地铁 by subway       (2). 坐火车 by train    

 (3). 坐骑车 by bike

(4). 骑自行车 by bike        (5). 走路  on foot

--How do you usually go to school ?

-- I go to school by bus / bike / car / subway / train / bike / plane

-- How does she go to school ?

-- She takes the bus /subway / train / plane / boat to school

      rides her bike to school.

      walks to school.

17.并非所有的 not all

18(1). 打开 turn on           (2). 关上 turn off

(3). 调大声 turn up         (4). 关小声 turn down

19how引导特殊疑问词

(1). 多长时间 how long   

 (2). 多久一次 how often  回答用every day / once a week / three times a week / often / sometimes …..

(3). 过多久(将来) how soon  回答用in + 一段时间

(4). 多少 how many  + 可数名词    

(5). 多少,多少钱 how much + 不可数名词

(6) 多大 how old  

(7) 多远 how far  ---how far is it from your home to school?

                ---it’s about 5 kilometers (miles)

                  It’s about 10 minutes’ walk / ride .

20.赢得一等奖 win the first prize

21.在….岁时 at the age of…..

22.长大 grow up                      35.我不敢肯定 I’m not sure

23.多,超过。(1). over                 (2). more than

24(1). …..(更好)的沟通  communicate well with sb

    (2). …..相处好       get on well with sb

25.取出,拿出  take out

26(1). 请假 have ….off        (2). 休息日 day off      (3) be off

27. get back / come back / go back / return 回来,返回,归还

28. a cup / bottle / bowl / teaspoon / slice / glass / basket of

   Three cups /bottles/bowls/teaspoons/slices/glasses/baskets of

29. first / next / then / finally

30. finish / enjoy / spend / practice/ consider / miss / stand / put off / give up / suggest / keep / feel like / be busy / can’t help / have fun / have problem (difficulty , trouble , a hard time ) + doing  

31. (1). be famous for 因为而出名     (2). be famous as 作为….而出名

   (3) be famous to  对于来说很出名

32. (1). agree with  同意         agree to do sth 同意做某事

  (2). disagree with 不同意

33. 例如  for example = for instance     such as

34. time 时间(不可数)  次数、倍数(可数)

   注:“次数“的表达方式:once  twice  three times  four times…

       Once(twice…..) a day /week/month/year  

35. exercise  v. how often do you exercise ?

            n. take exercise

36. want sb to do sth  想要某人做某事

   want to do sth  想要做某事

   ask sb to do sth  要求某人做某事

   tell sb to do sth  告诉某人做某事

37. 帮助某人做某事  help sb (to) do sth

   在某方面给予帮助 help …..with…..

38. some times 几次、几倍  sometimes 有时  

some time  一点时间    sometime (将来)某个时间

  39. a lot of = lots of  many + 可数名词  much + 不可数名词

  40. see a doctor 看医生  see a dentist 看牙医  take the medicine 吃药

 lie down and rest 躺下休息

     go to bed = go to sleep 去睡觉   fall asleep 入睡

  be stressed out  紧张

  41. be angry with 生气

  42. be popular in …..受欢迎

  43. get good grades 取得好成绩

  44. (sb) need to do sth    (sth) need doing

  45. I’m sorry to hear that

  46. go to the beach 去海滩   spend time with 空度光阴

  47. have a good time = have fun = enjoy oneself 玩得高兴

  48. take / have walks 散步  take /have a vacation 度假   go away 离开

  49. 考虑 think of / about doing sth

  50. 决定某事decide on sth    决定(不)做某事 decide (not ) to do sth

  51. 计划做某事 plan to do sth   制定计划make a plan

  52. 生病住院 be ill in hospital

  53. 担心  be worried about = be anxious about = worry about

  54. 顺便来访  come over

  55. 邀请某人去某地 invite sb to somewhere  

邀请某人做某事 invite sb to do sth

  56. -- what day is it today?

– it is Sunday / Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday /Saturday .

   --What’s the date today ?

-- it is November 12.

  57. 感谢做某事 thanks (thank you ) for doing sth

  58. beat sb 打败(某人、某队)they beat us in the soccer match.

    win 赢得 (比赛,奖项)

  59. make 用法

     (1) make sb do sth

     (2) make sb / sth + adj   The moving made me boring.

  60. pour …into…  倒入..    cut up 切碎   mix up 混合 

add ….to… ….加在….

Turn on 打开、turn off 关掉、turn up 调大、turn down关小

  70. finally = at last   最后

  71. at first = to begin with 首先

  72. go to the aquariums 去水族馆   take photos 照相   hang out 闲逛

     buy a souvenir 买纪念品  get one’s autograph 得到某人的签名

     win the first prize 获第一名  see a dolphin show 观看海豚表演

     go for a drive 开车兜风   sleep late 睡过头

     in the future 在未来

  73. at the end of …..…..尽头

  74. day off 休息日  on my next day off

     have + 时间+ off 休息多久

  75. be born 出生

  76. 参加  join(组织、团队)   take part in (活动)

  77. at the age of ….….的年龄

  78. major in 主修

  79. because of + 名词   because + 句子

  80. too ….to …. = not ….enough to …. = so …..that ….. ….而不能….

  81. grow up 成长

  82. be going to + V   打算、计划将要做某事

  83. – What are you going to be when you grow up ?

     -- I’m going to be a/an computer player / actor / professional basketball player / athlete / engineer / pilot /scientist / musician /writer / policeman /doctor / soldier /cook / nurse ……

  84. hold art exhibition 举办美术展览

  85. at the same time 同时

  86. part – time job 兼职工作

  87. get good grades 取得好成绩

  88. take guitar lessons 上吉他课

  89. communicate with …..交流

  90. --- Could you please (not) do sth …?

     --- Sure. I’d love to .

     --- I’m sorry, I can’t . I …….

  100. Chinese 中文  English英语  math数学  physics物理

chemistry 化学  history 历史 biology生物

  101. do the dishes 洗餐具         sweep the floor 扫地  

take out the trash 倒垃圾      make one’s bed 整理床铺

      fold one’s clothes 叠衣服      clean the living room 打扫客厅

  have a test 考试             make breakfast 做早饭

      do the laundry = do some washing  洗衣服

  102. work on 从事   work with 一起工作    work as 作为….工作

  103. borrow sth from sb  向某人借某物

      lend sth to sb 借给某人某物  

  104. end up with …..…. 结束。  end up doing sth 结束做某事

  105. hate to do sth = hate doing sth 讨厌做某事

  106. begin / start to do sth 开始做某事

  107. be interested in = take an interest in + n / pre / doing …..感兴趣

      interest(动词)使….感兴趣、吸引..  The story doesn’t interest me at all.

      interest(名次)兴趣   place of interest 名胜古迹

  108. enough + 名词      adj + enough

  109. play an instrument 弹奏乐器    make the soccer team 组建足球队

  110. save some money 存钱

  111. move to …..搬到…..

B. 主要知识点:

  1. 也许,可能 (1). maybe  adv.    (2). may be  v. 可能是(在)

→(1). He  maybe  went sightseeing .

(2). She  may  be  in the classroom .

  2. (1). Although …..but ….      (2). Because …..so

→(1). Although his words sound reasonable , but I won’t listen to him .

      (2). Because he was ill , so he was late .

  (3). I like it ,  so  I will buy it . 

      A. and       B. or       C. so

  3. 系动词+形容词:

look , get , become , feel , keep , sound , taste

4.好  good  adj     

. well  (1).adj  身体     (2). adv

→ (1). It tastes  good   .

(2). I have a cold , I don’t feel  well   .

(3). He is my friend , he gets on  well  with me .

  5. It is ….(for sb) to do ….

        对某人来说,做某事怎么样。

     →(1). 对我们来说,学好英语很重要

            It    is  important for  us   to   study  English well .

(2). I think  it   impolite to laugh at others .

  6. 花费:

(1). / It takes sb time to do sth  做某事花费某人多少时间

(2). / It cost ….            某物花费多少钱

(3). spend …..( in ) doing      某人花费…..做某事

(4). spend ….. on sth         某人在…..花费…..

(5). pay ……. for ….       某人为某物付款

→(1). 走路上学要花我10分钟。

It takes                  to                              .

(2). He   B    ten yuan for the book .

A. spent      B. paid      C. cost

       (3). The dictionary   B    me ten yuan .

           A. took       B. cost      C. spent

7  (1). something important           (2). old enough

  →(1). Is there   B   in the newspaper today ?

       A. something new       B. anything new       C. new anything

    (2). She is   B    to raise       .

       A. enough lucky , enough money   B. lucky enough , enough money

C. luckily enough , money enough

   8. (1). forget to do   忘记了要做某事         未做   

(2). forget doing  忘记了已经做过了某事  已做

     →(1). Please take care of my dog , Don’t forget  to feed   ( feed ) him .

       (2). We met in London last year , Have you forgotten meeting       ( meet ) me ?

   9. (1). stop to do    停下来,改做另一件事  要做

(2). stop doing   停止做某事             不做

→(1). When the teacher came into the classroom , all the students stopped

  talking    ( talk) .

  (2). After a long work , he stopped  to rest  ( rest ) .

   10. 参加 join / take part in

11. too…..to…. = not ….enough to ….= so…..that….   …..,而不能……

12(1). a small / large number of + n复数+ V复数

(2). the number of + n复数   + V单数

      → (1). A small number of        ( student )        ( not like ) English .

(2). The number of          ( student ) in our class       ( be ) 51 .

13not …..until ….. 直到。。。。,才。。。。

   → I  didn’t leave  ( not leave ) until the rain stopped .

14. too much / much too

   (1) too much + 不可数名词      (2) much too + 形容词

The meat is much too expensive and eating too much meat is bad for your health.

  15. show sb sth = show sth to sb

     双宾语动词

(to):  give, teach, show, ask, hand, send, pass, lend.

     (for): make, buy, bring

     She will bring some books to her tomorrow.

     His parents make a cake for him.

16. 形容词比较级

1) as + adj + as …..前者和后者一样…… Tom is as tall as Mike.

2) adj 比较级 + than  前者比后者更….些。

  This pen is more expensive than that one.

  He is clever than me .

3) the + adj 比较级 , the + adj 比较级  …..,就越….”

  The more you eat , the heavier you are.

  less….than…..前者不如后者……

4) much , a lot , a little , a bit , far 可用于形容词(比较级)前表程度。

  This movie is much more interesting than that one .

5) 形容词比较级的变化:

   1. 一般情况下,在形容词后加 er . small –smaller

   2. e 结尾的词,比较级在后面加r .   cute – cuter   large -- larger

   3. 以辅音字母+ y 结尾的,变y i 再加er .

 easy – easier   happy – happier   busy – busier  heavy – heavier

   4. 双写末尾字母+ er

      fat – fatter    thin – thinner    hot – hotter    wet – wetter

      big – bigger

   5. 多音节词前加more

      beautiful – more beautiful    interesting – more interesting

      delicious – more delicious    important – more important

      expensive – more expensive   creative – more creative

      useful – more useful         popular – more popular

   6. 不规则变化

      good / well – better – best          little – less – lest

      bad / badly / ill – worse – worst     many / much – more – most

      far – farther – farthest            

 

17. 一般过去时

一、   概念。

(1)       表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

(2)       表示过去经常发生的动作

二、时间状语。

    yesterday 昨天    last night 昨晚    last week 上周    last year 去年

   on Sunday afternoon 在星期天下午   in 1997 1997  last Friday 上周五

    a few days ago  几天前

eg: I watched(watch) TV last night.

   He played(play) basketball with you yesterday afternoon.

三、be 动词、 行为动词和there be 在一般过去时的肯定句,否定句,一般疑问句的变化。

be 动词

肯定句: I/he/she/It  was         We/They/You  were

eg:   I was a good student.     He was from England.

     We were at home.

  结构: 主语( 三单 +was+其他    

         主语( 复数 +were+其他

否定句: I /he/she/It  wasn’t        We/They/You  weren’t

  结构: 主语( 三单 +wasn’t+其他

         主语( 复数 +weren’t+其他

一般疑问句:was  I/he/she/It        were We/They/You 

eg:  Was I a good student?       Was he from England?

     Were we at home?

  结构: Was+主语( 三单 +其他    

         Were+主语( 复数 +其他

肯定回答: Yes, I/he/she/it  was          Yes, I/he/she/it   were

否定回答: No,I/he/she/it  wasn’t         No,I/he/she/it   weren’t

结构: Yes+主语( 三单 +was    

           Yes+主语( 复数 +were

结构: No+主语( 三单 +wasn’t   

           No+主语( 复数 +weren’t

 

 

There be 句型

肯定句:There was ……                There were ……

eg:  There was a book on the table two days ago.

    There were many students in the class last night.

否定句:There wasn’t ……                There weren’t ……

eg:  There wasn’t a book on the table two days ago.

    There weren’t many students in the class last night.

一般疑问句:Was there……                Were there……

eg:  Was there a book on the table two days ago?

        Were there many students in the class last night?

肯定回答:Yes, there was       Yes, there were.

否定回答:No, there wasn’t     No, there weren’t

 

 

肯定句:I did my homework yesterday.     He watched TV at home.

        They played basketball.

  结构:主语+动词过去分词+其他

否定句:I didn’t do my homework yesterday.     He didn’t watch TV at home.

        They didn’t play basketball.

  结构:主语+ didn’t+动词原形+其他

一般疑问句:Did I do my homework yesterday?    Did he watch TV at home?

Did they play basketball?

  肯定回答:Yes, 主语+did

  否定回答:No, 主语+didn’t

 

不规则动词的变化:

go --- went--gone      take --- took--taken      have / has --- had--had  

buy --- bought—bought    eat --- ate--eaten      see --- saw--seen    

hang --- hung--hung       meet --- met--met     win ---won--won  

sleep --- slept—slept       put --- put—put      read ---read—read  

come ---came—come   wake --- woke—waken    keep –kept – kept

sell –sold-- sold          tell –told –told        lend – lent – lent  

spend –spent – spent    burn—burnt—burnt      learn—learnt—learnt

teach—taught—taught   bring—brought—brought   buy—bought—bought

speak—spoke—spoken  grow—grew—grown     swim—swam—swum

begin—began—begun   sing—sang—sung       ring—rang—rung

write—wrote—written   ride—rode—ridden      build—built—built

hear—heard—heard     leave—left—left        get—got—gotten

give—gave—given     make—made—made     run—ran—run

take—took—taken    forget—forgot—forgotten   am/is—was –been

break—broke—broken  think—thought –thought  

 

18. 过去进行时:

1. 过去某个时刻正在发生的动作,可能持续到现在。

2. 结构:was / were + ing

3. 记号词:

(1). at nine yesterday            from nine to ten last Sunday

       at that time   for the whole night yesterday                 

(2). When / while + 时间状语从句 (过去)

4. 注意:

When / while 引导一个动作发生在过去的从句,不管是主句,还是从句的谓语动词。

只要是延续性动词 ←→ 过去进行时   

 

只要是 非延续性动词 ←→ 一般过去时

The boy was playing  (play) outside when it  began   (begin) to rain five days ago .

I  was watching  (watch) TV while my mother  was cooking  (cook) yesterday .

 

19. 一般将来时:

1.结构:

(1). be going to + V动原   打算做,准备做。

(2). will +V动原         打算做,准备做(带有一定意愿色彩)。

(3). be + Ving     有些动词,可以用进行时表一般将来时

    come    go    fly    leave     arrive     move    start

2. 记号词:

    tomorrow         next week         from now on        in the future

    in + 将来时间 (……. 以后)         

3.注意:状语从句中用will表一般将来时,不用be going to表一般将来时。

 

20. 一般现在时:

1. 哪些情况下使用一般现在时?

(1). 经常发生的动作或习惯。

    (2). 客观事实:客观真理,自然现象等等。

    (3). 状语从句  主将←→从现

2. 记号词

       often  (经常)      usually  (通常)       sometimes  (有时)

        always    (总是)     every day   (每天)       every Sunday  (每周星期天)

3. 第三人称单数 (三单)

he , she , it , 单数人,单数物 , 不定式、动名词、不定代词作主语 ,谓语动词用三单。

4. 结构:

(1). 肯定句:主语(三单) +  动词三单  

                主语(非三单) +  动原  

(2). 问句:  Does  + 主语(三单)+  动原  

                Do  + 主语(非三单) +  动原  

(3). 否定句:主语(三单) +  doesn’t  +  动原  

                主语(非三单) +  don’t  +  动原  

 

21. 现在完成时

().用法:

(1). 动作发生在过去,但强调对现在的 影响

(2). 动作发生在过去,但一直延续到现在  Since ,  for ,  how long .

 

()、现在完成时和一般过去时的区别:

          一般过去时:1。强调动作发生的时间,地点(where除外)

过去 á             2。句中有过去的具体时间yesterday, ago , last , when 等等。

现在完成时:1。强调对现在的影响。

                2.动作一直延续到现在。

(三)、记号词

1. (1). just 刚刚   (2). never从不    (3). before以前     (7). ever曾经

        (4). already已经      (5). yet已经       (6). not yet还没有

        (8): 注意:just (现在完成时)        just now(一般过去时)

 2.  since ,for ,how long(一段时间)? 现在完成时

(1). since + 过去的具体时间     自从……..  (since two years ago )

             主句(现在完成时+ since + 从句(一般过去时

(2). for + 一段时间   长达。。。。

(3). how long        多长时间?

(四)、since , for , how long(一段时间)? 延续性

since , for , how long从意思上看,表示动作延续了一段时间,所以谓语动词

要用延续性动词。

(1). buy  have     (2). catch / get a cold   have a cold     (3). borrow / lend  keep 

(5). put on   be     in  

(6). open  be open        (7). close   be closed        (8). fall asleep  be asleep   

(9). join   be a member of         (10). die  be dead   

(11). leave  be away                 (12). end / finish   be over   

(13). get / receive a letter from ,

                    hear from        have  a letter from

()、短语辨析

1have been in + 地点(一直住在某地)

2have been to + 地点(曾经去过某地,已回来)

3have gone to + 地点(去某地了,现在不在这儿)

4. 注意:地点副词的前面不能加介词there , here , home

 

22. 过去完成时:

1. 两个动作都发生在过去,最先发生的动作用过去完成时,最后发生的动作用一般过去时。   过去的过去 → 过去完成时

2. 常用于宾语从句中。主过←→宾过

3. 结构:had + V过去分词

4. 记号词:

(1). by / by the end of + 过去时间  ……. 为止

(2) by the time + 从句 (过去时间)  ……. 为止

(3). before + 从句 (过去时间)      before + 过去时间   在。。。。之前   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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