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Miss Chen

突然想到在网上建一个空间,方便新老朋友交流英语学习的经验,就有了这个博客。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

【引用】初中英语动词时态复习讲义  

2011-12-21 10:44:50|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

动词时态

一般现在时

、动词的第三人称词尾变化:

当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词需加-s-es

规则

动词原形

第三人称单数形式

一般在词尾加-s(清辅音后读∕s∕,在浊辅音后读∕z∕;在t后读∕ts,d后读∕dz∕。)

play

leave

swim

plays

leaves

swims

以字母s,x,ch,sh,o结尾的词加-es,读∕iz,如果动词原形词尾已有e,则只加-s

pass

fix

teach

wish

do

passes

fixes

teaches

wishes

does

以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先变yi, 再加-es,读∕z∕。

study

carry

fly

studies

carries

flies

注意:动词have的第三人称单数是has.

写出下列动词的单数第三人称形式。

1. cook _______2.watch________3.build_________4.have________5.wash________

6. enjoy ______7. go _________8 receive ______9 cry______10. close ________

11. drive _______  12. choose ______13. play ________14. reach ________

. 一般现在时的用法

1 表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的副词连用。常用的频度副词有: alwaysoften usuallyseldomnever。频度副词在句中通常放在行为动词之前,系动词、助动词之后。

例如: He often goes swimming in summer.他夏天经常游泳。

I usually leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

2)表示现在的状态。

例如:My father is at work.He is very busy. 我父亲在工作,他很忙。

      The boy is twelve. 这男孩十二岁。

3)表示主语具备的性格、特征和能力等。

例如:All my family love football .我全家人都喜欢足球。
My sister is always ready to help others .
我妹妹总是乐于助人。

Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

4)表示客观真理,客观存在,自然现象。

例如:The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

    Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

5)表示按计划或安排好的,或将要发生的动作,可用一般现在时表将来。但只限于start,begin,leave,go,come,arrive,return,take place等。

例如:The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

      He comes back tonight. 他今晚回来。

6)在复合句中,当主句是一般将来时,时间或条件状语从句的谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作。

例如: I'll tell him the news when he comes back. 他回来时,我将告诉他这个消息。

If you take the job , they will talk with you in greater details.

如果你接受这份工作,他们将和你谈谈细节。

巩固练习:

1Lucy likes going skating with her friends. (改写成否定句)

________________________________________________________

2Aunt Li’s son has ten toy bears. (对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3His watch costs 300 yuan. (变成一般疑问句并否定回答)

________________________________________________________

4I like being a nurse for the old. (变成一般疑问句)

________________________________________________________

5、张叔叔每天乘坐地铁上班。

________________________________________________________

6、我们每周日常花三小时在图书馆看书。

________________________________________________________

7、我爷爷常常晚饭后出去散步。

________________________________________________________

一般过去时

一、动词过去式的规则变化:

构成规则

动词原形

动词过去式

一般在动词原形末尾加-ed(在清辅音后读t;在浊辅音和元音后读d;在

t,d∕后读∕id∕。

look

play

work

 

looked

played

worked

结尾是e的动词在末尾加-d

like

live

hope

liked

lived

hoped

末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed

plan

stop

drop

planned

stopped

dropped

结尾是“辅音字母+y”的动词,先变“y”为“I”再加-ed

study

worry

cry

studies

worries

cries

注:不规则动词过去式参见八年级下册P142

写出下列动词的过去式形式。

1. put ________2. drink _______3. cry _______4. pull ________5. ride ________

6.begin ________7. sit ________8. run _________9. take _________   10.sweep _______

11. stop _______   12. solve _______13. rob ________14. wait _________15. lie _________

16. turn _______17. explore _______18. drop _______19. clean ______20. produce _____

21.get __________22.laugh________23.pay________24.die_________25.prefer ______

. 一般过去时的用法

1)表示过去某个时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。常和表示过去的时间状语yesterday, last week, an hour ago,just now, the other day, in 1982等连用。在一般过去式中,要表达“过多少时间之后”,一般用after。几年后。

例如:Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

     After a few years,she started to play the piano.几年后,她开始弹钢琴。

2)表示在过去,经常或反复发生的动作。常与often,always等表示频度的副词连用。

例如:When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。 

3)一般过去式也可与today,this week,this month,this year等表现在的时间壮语连用,但这些时间壮语须指过去的时间,决不包含“现在”“此时此刻”的意思。

例如:Did you see him today?今天你看见他了吗?

巩固练习:

1、Yesterday I went swimming.(改写成否定句。)

________________________________________________________

2、He was born in Shanghai.(对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3我昨天买了一辆新自行车。

________________________________________________________

4、我前天读了一本书。

________________________________________________________

一般将来时

一、一般将来时的构成:助动词will+动词原形

在口语中,will在名词或代词后常缩为’llwii not常简缩为won’t。在疑问句中,主语为第一人称时(Iwe)时,常用助动词shall

例如:She’ll go to play basketball. 她要去打篮球。

      Shall we go to the zoo? 我们要去动物园吗?

二、一般将来时的用法

1、表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与tomorrow, next year等连用。例如:I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.

2、表示将来经常或反复发生的动作。

例如:I’ll come and see you every Saturday next year.明年我将每个星期六来看你。

3、表示说话人对于将来的看法、假设和推测,通常用be afraid,be/feel sure,hope,know,think等后面的从句或与副词perhaps,possibly,maybe等连用。

例如:I think she’ll go back home for supper. 我想她会回家吃饭。

      Maybe she’ll go to the gym.也许她会去体育馆。

三、be going to +不定式,表示将来。

1、表示主语进行某一行动的打算意图。这种打算常经过预先考虑并含有自己做好某些准备的意思。即计划,安排要发生的事。

例如:What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢?

The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。

2、表示说话人确信如此或有某种迹象表明某事即将发生。

例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了。

3、注意:be going to will之间的区别。

1两者都用于预测时,be going to意指有迹象表明某件事将要发生,属客观的推测;will则意指说话人认为/相信某件事将要发生,属主观的推测。

2两者在时间的发生上,be going to通常表示马上要发生或相当快就要发生的事情;而will不指明任何具体时间,可以指遥远的未来。

例如:He is gong in to be better. 他的病就要好起来了。

      He will be better. 他的病会好起来了。

3两者都表示意图时,be going to含有预先计划、准备的意思;will则指未经过预先思考或计划,是临时的一种决定。

4在条件壮语从句中,be going to表将来,will表意愿。

例如:If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

      如果你将要去旅行,最好尽快做好准备。

  Miss Gao will tell you the answer if you ask her. 如果你去问高老师,她会告诉你答案。

四、be +不定式表将来,表示客观安排或受人指示而将要做某事。

例如:We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

五、be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

例如:He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

巩固练习:

1. Mrs. Brown is going to buy a digital camera. (对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

2.My boss is going to fly to London on business the day after tomorrow. (用often改写句子)____________________________________________________

3.Sam will visit Brazil next week. (变成一般疑问句并否定回答)

________________________________________________________

4. 他们今晚要去看足球赛。

________________________________________________________

5.金一家人什么时候去长城啊?

________________________________________________________

过去将来时

一、过去将来时的构成:1would/should+动词原形
                      2
was/were going to+动词原形

二、过去将来时的用法:

1表示从过去某时看将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常用于主句是一般过去时的宾语从句中。

例如:He said that he would finish his work before 9 o’clock.

      他说他会在九点之前完成工作。

2、表示过去的某种习惯,只要would

例如:Whenever he has been in trouble,we would give him a hand.

     每当他遇到困难时,我们总会伸出援助之手。

巩固练习:

1He said that he                 (come)back tonight.

2I thought it                    rainsoon.

现在进行时

一、现在进行时的构成:am/is/are+动词的现在分词

二、动词V-ing的构成形式

规则

原形

-ing形式

一般在动词原形末尾加-ing

listen

spend

stay

listening

spending

staying

以不发音字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e,再加-ing

have

prepare

close

having

preparing

closing

以重读闭音节结尾的动词,如果末尾只有一个辅音字母,应先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing

sit

begin

run

put

sitting

beginning

running

putting

ie为重读音节结尾的动词,先去掉e,i改为y,再加-ing

lie

die

lying

dying

er结尾的动词,如是重读音节结尾,先双写r,再加-ing;如不是重读音节结尾,就直接加-ing

prefer

water

preferring

watering

写出下列动词的现在分词形式。

1win            2relax             3jump            4make          

5have            6talk           7tie            8cheer           

9enjoy           10cry            11come           12fit           

三、现在进行时的用法:

1、表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生或进行的动作。常与now,right now,at this moment等时间壮语连用。

例如: We are waiting for you now. 我们正在等你。

2、表示现阶段(说话前后一段时间内),一直在进行的活动。说话时动作未必正在进行。

例如:Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

     He is thinking about this problem.这些天来他一直在考虑这个问题。

3、表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,常与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

例如:You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

4、表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

例如:The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

    It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

 5、表示按计划或安排要发生的动作。

1表移动的终止性动词(come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等)用于现在进行时,表示即将要发生动作。

例如:I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

      The train is arriving soon. 火车要到了。

2一些持续性动词用于进行时,表将来,表示说话者对对方将要做的事情的一种关心。

例如:Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

注意:

巩固练习:

1Bruce often writes letters in English. (用now改写句子)

________________________________________________________

2They are surfing. (对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3、瞧,那些孩子们玩的真高兴!

________________________________________________________

4、这些天工人们一直在尽力修补那些坏了的帐篷。

________________________________________________________

用所给动词的正确形式填空。

1. Uncle Wang usually _______ (go) to work by bike.

2. Be quiet ! The patient ____________ (sleep).

3Look, a number of Young Pioneers _______________(plant) trees over there.

4Emily often _______ (help) her mother _________ (wash) clothes on Sunday.

5______ (not be) afraid, I ____________ (show) you how to reach the station.

6What ______ you ______________ (do) the day after tomorrow ?

7There ________ (be) an important meeting in two days.

8My aunt           (join) the Party in 1995.

过去进行时

一、过去进行时的构成was/were+动词的现在分词(--ing)

二、过去进行时的用法:

1、表示在过去某时刻正在进行或发生的动作,通常与表过去的时间壮语连用。

例如:At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.
昨天这个时候,我正在收拾东西去露营。

2、表移动的动词,如come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等词的过去进行时,可以表示过去将要发生的动作。

例如:She told me that she was going to Hainan for her holiday. 她告诉我她将去海南度假。

3、在含有时间壮语从句的复合句中,表示一个过去的动作发生时或发生之后,另一个动作正在进行。

例如:It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。

  When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。

4、在叙述或描写过去的事情时,过去进行时经常与其它过去时态,特别时是一般过去时连用。但是过去进行时往往是表示背景。

例如:One night, he was typing in his study . Suddenly , a man broke into his house and cut off the electricity … .

一天晚上,他正在书房里打字。突然,一个人闯进屋来,切断了电源……

巩固练习:

1Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. 

A. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes

2As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

A. readwas falling B. was reading fell C. was reading was falling D. readfell

现在完成时

一、现在完成时的构成:助动词have/has+动词的过去分词

二、过去分词的构成:

     过去分词的规则变化与动词过去式的变化相同,在动词词尾加-ed;不规则变化的过去分词见九年级下册教科书p74《不规则动词表》。

写出下列动词的过去分词形式。

1bring           2catch          3do          4find          

5eat         6get           7forget          8cut          

9pay          10know          11buy          12see        

13come           14sleep          15spend          16tell        

三、现在完成时的用法

1表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常与already, yet, ever, never, justbefore 等词连用。

例如:Have you ever cooked at home? 你吃晚饭了吗?
You have already grown much taller.
你已经长高了许多。

2、表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,并可能还要延续。往往和表示一段时间的时间壮语连用,常用的有:for+一段时间;since+过去时间点或从句。(Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度),提问用How long.

例如:It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。
      They have learned English for eight years .
他们已学了八年的英语了。
3
、现在完成时需注意的问题:

1表示短暂性的动词不能与表示一段时间的壮语连用appear,begin,borrow,lend,buy,close,

come,die,fall,find,finish,join,kill,leave,sell,stop等。

例如:He has joined the army for five years. (错误)
He has been in the army for five years.(
正确)

注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。

(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.     

2不能和明确的过去时间壮语连用,如:yesterday,last week,in 1998,two days ago等。

3have/has been to have/has gone to 的区别:

  have/has been to                        

  have/has gone to                        

试举例                                      

                                               

4比较一般过去时与现在完成时

一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,强调动作,不和现在发生联系,常与具体的过去时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,;现在完成时表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调的是现在的情况,不能与表过去的时间壮语连用。

I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

He has been a League member for three years. (强调他是团员)

巩固练习: 

1-Do you know our town at all? 

  -No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was  B. have been  C. came  D. am coming

2-Have you ____ been to our town before?

  -No, it's the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come  B. even, have come  C. ever, come  D. ever, have come

3Do you know ________?
  A. how long has he lived here      B. how long he has lived here
  C. he has lived here how long      D. he has lived how long here
    过去完成时

一、过去完成时的构成:助动词had+动词过去分词

二、过去完成时的用法:

1、表示在过去某一时间或动作以前已完成的行为或存在的状态。即发生的时间是过去的过去。常与“by/before+过去时间构成的短语连用。

例如:The train had already left before we arrived. 在我到达之前,火车已经开走了。

      He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。

2、表示在过去某一时间点之前已经持续了一段时间的动作或状态,常与for/since引导的表示过去的时间壮语连用。

例如:I had lived in America for two years before I came here .

我来这儿之前在美国住过两年。

3、表示过去未曾实现的计划、愿望等。这种用法中常用的动词为hope, want,plan,wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等。

例如:We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

      I had thought that all knew about it.我以为他们都知道这件事呢。
巩固练习:

1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. 

A. had met B. have met  C. met D. meet

2. ---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

 ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been  B. had been  C. was D. will be      

3The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. 

A. had written, left    Bwere writing, has left 

C. had written, had left   D. were writing, had left

4My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. 

A. has lost, don't find   B. is missing, don't find 

C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found.  

 

     

十一种时态与例子

(1)一般现在时
1) They go to work by bike every day.
2) Does the moon move around the sun? Yes, it does.
3) He doesn't love sports.
4) We are all teachers from the country.
5) The children don’t have enough food in Africa.
6) Do you go to see your uncle every other day?
(2)现在进行时
1)They are showing us around the farm.
2)Are the students reading now?
3)It isn't raining hard.
4)We are leaving on Friday.
(3)现在完成时
1)How many words have you learnt today?
2)He hasn't got up yet.
3)I have been to England.
(4)现在完成进行时
1)I've been sitting here all day.
2)Has it been raining for three days? Yes, it has.
 3)We have not just been talking about you.
(5)一般过去时
1)My mother wasn't in last night.
2)We didn't watch TV last night.
3)The girl cried just now.
4)We were middle school students last year.
5)Were you at home last night? Yes, I were.
6)Did you wash clothes last night? No, I didn't.
(6)过去进行时
1)I was reading at night yesterday morning.
2)We weren't planting trees this time yesterday.
3)Were they singing when the teacher came? Yes, they were.
(7)过去完成时
1)He said he hadn't collected 300 stamps.
2)Had you learnt 280 new words by the end of last month ?
3)When I rushed to the cinema, the film had begun.
(8)过去将来时
1)He said his mother would buy a bike for him
2)My brother told me he wouldn’t believe Jack any more.
3)Would it be all right if he knew his illness?
(9)一般将来时
1)When will you be able to visit us again?
2)I won't be free tonight.
3)My sister will finish her middle school this year.
(10)将来完成时
1)We will have finished our middle school next July.
2)Will he have finished writing the novel by the end of next month? Yes, he will.
3)We won't have finished the job when you turn back.
(11)将来进行时
1)What will they be doing tomorrow evening?
2)It won't be long before we will be making such a good train.
3)I won't be leaving until 12.

 

 

动词的时态

1. 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday。例如:

   I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如:

    The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

    Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

3) 表示格言或警句。例如:

    Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

    注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如:

    I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。

    Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子。

         I am doing my homework now. 我正在做功课。

  第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

 

2. 一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。例如:

   Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎。     

3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"。例如:It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。

   It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了" ,例如It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

   would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)

        Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)

        Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

        Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如:

    Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗?

    I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。

2)情态动词 could, would。例如:

    Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?

 

3. used to / be used to 

  used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。例如:

  Mother used not to be so forgetful. 老妈过去没那么健忘。

  Scarf used to take a walk. 斯卡夫过去常常散步。

  be used to + doing:对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。例如:

  He is used to a vegetarian diet.  

  Scarf is used to taking a walk. 斯卡夫现在已习惯于散步了。

典型例题   

---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It's 69568442.      

A. didn't  B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

  答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

 

4. 一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。例如:

    Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢?

    Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

     a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢?

     b. 计划,安排要发生的事。例如:The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。

     c. 有迹象要发生的事。例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了。

 3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:

     We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

4)  be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。例如:

     He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

  注意:be about to do 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

 

 5. be going to / will 用于条件句时,be going to表将来,will表意愿。例如:

  If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

  Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

 

6. be to和be going to 

   be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事,be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。例如:

    I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.  明天下午我去踢球。(客观安排)

    I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon.  明天下午我想去踢球。(主观安排)

 

7. 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

   The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

   When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:

    Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

    There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

3)在时间或条件句中。例如:

    When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

    I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等的宾语从句中。例如:

    I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。

    Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. 离开房间前,务必把窗户关了。

 

8. 用现在进行时表示将来

  下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如:

  I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

  Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

 

9. 现在完成时

  现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成:have (has) +过去分词。

 

10. 比较一般过去时与现在完成时

1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,皆为具体的时间状语。

现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语。

共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。

3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.。

      一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。例如:

I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)

He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)

    句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

 

11. 用于现在完成时的句型 

1)It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

注意:It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。例如:

    This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 

典型例题

(1) ---Do you know our town at all? 

      ---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was  B. have been  C. came  D. am coming

       答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?

      ---No, it's the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come  B. even, have come  C. ever, come  D. ever, have come

      答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。

     注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。

(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.

 

12. 比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。例如:
  I have lived here for more than twenty years.我住在这儿二十多年了。
  I have lived here since I was born. 我从出生起就住在这儿了。
  注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。
   I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。)
   I have worked here for many years.(现在我仍在这里工作。)
  注意:用句型转换的方法,很容易排除非延续动词在有for/since结构的完成时中的误用。
  1)(对) Tom has studied Russian for three years. = Tom began to study Russian three years    ago, and is still studying it now.
  2)(错) Harry has got married for six years. = Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.
    显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

 

13. since的四种用法

  1) since +过去一个时间点(如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。例如:

    I have been here since 1989. 1989起,我一直在这儿。

  2) since +一段时间+ ago。例如:

    I have been here since five months ago. 我在这儿,已经有五个月了。

  3) since +从句。例如:

    Great changes have taken place since you left. 你走后,变化可大了。

    Great changes have taken place since we were here. 我们走后,变化可大了。

  4) It is +一段时间+ since从句。例如:

    It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 我考上研究生有两年了。

 

14. 延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。例如:

    He has completed the work.  他已完成了那项工作。(表结果)

    I've known him since then.   我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异

    延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"。例如:

    He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到10 点才回来。

He slept until ten o'clock.  他一直睡到10点。    

  典型例题

1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. 

A. had met B. have met  C. met D. meet

     答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2. ---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

       ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been  B. had been  C. was D. will be

     答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。

 

15. 过去完成时

1) 概念:表示过去的过去

----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成。

那时以前  那时 现在      

2) 用法

     a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:

      She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。

     b. 状语从句

      在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:

      When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。

     c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。例如:

      We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。例如:

       He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。

       By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。

       Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。

典型例题 

     The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. 

A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

     答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此前一句应用过去进行时。

注意: had hardly… when  还没等…… 就……。

例如:I had hardly opened the door when I he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我。

had no sooner…than    刚…… 就……。

例如:He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了。

 

16. 用一般过去时代替过去完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。例如:

    When she saw the mouse,she screamed. 她看到老鼠,就叫了起来。

    My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了。

2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。例如:

    When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。例如:

    Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

 

17. 将来完成时

 1) 构成will have done

 2) 概念 

a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。例如:

They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。

  b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如:

   You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时,你已经到达上海了。

   

18. 现在进行时

   现在进行时的基本用法:

   a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:

     We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。

   b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

     Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

  c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。例如:

    The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

    It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

   d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:

    You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

典型例题

   My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. 

   A. has lost, don't find   B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found.  

   答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。

 

19. 不用进行时的动词

1)表示事实状态的动词,如have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue等。例如:I have two brothers. 我有两兄弟。

    This house belongs to my sister. 这房子是我姐的。

 2)表示心理状态的动词,如know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate等。例如:I need your help. 我需要你的帮助。

    He loves her very much. 他爱她很深。

 3)瞬间动词,如accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse等。例如:

    I accept your advice. 我接受你的劝告。

 4)系动词,如seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn等。例如:

    You seem a little tired. 你看上去有点累。

 

20. 过去进行时

1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语有this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。例如:

   My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.  我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受了伤。

   It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。

   When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。

典型例题

1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. 

A. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes

 答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

A. read;was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell

 答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell(fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。

 

21. 将来进行时

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如:

   She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。

   I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。

注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语有soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢。

 

22. 一般现在时代替一般将来时

When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:

 He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

典型例题

(1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.

    A. had not given; had not succeeded  B. would not give; succeeded

    C. will not give; succeed       D. would not give; will succeed.

    答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

    (2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。例如:

   The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)

 

23. 一般现在时代替一般过去时

1 ) "书上说","报纸上说"等。例如:

     The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。

 2) 叙述往事,使其生动。例如:

     Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进,大战开始了。

 

24. 一般现在时代替现在完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时,如hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember等。例如:

   I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦。

   I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 我忘了他多大了。

2) 用句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"。例如:

It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来,五年过去了。

 

25. 一般现在时代替现在进行时。

在Here comes…/There goes…等句型里,用一般现在时代替现在进行时。例如:

   There goes the bell. 铃响了。

 

26. 现在进行时代替将来时

1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。例如:

   Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗?

   We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。

2) 渐变动词,如get, run, grow, become, begin以及瞬间动词die等。例如:

   He is dying. 他要死了。

 

27. 时态一致

  1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实,则用现在时。例如:

   At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. 那时,人们不知道地球是动的。

   He told me last week that he is eighteen. 上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。

  2) 宾语从句中的,助动词ought, need, must, dare 的时态是不变的。例如:

   He thought that I need not tell you the truth. 他认为我不必告诉你真相。

 

28. 时态与时间状语

时态

时间状语

一般现在时

every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday等

一般过去时

yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now等

一般将来时

next…, tomorrow, in+一段时间, before+时间点等

现在完成时

for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently等

过去完成时

before, by+过去的时间, until, when, after, once等

过去进行时

this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while等

将来进行时

soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

 

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